During the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Manetho was the curator priest who lived through the final half of the 4th century B.C. to the first half of the 3rd century B.C., was the high priest of Heliopolis, of whom today's historians owe due credit. Despite the fact that a large bulk of his writings are missing and surviving only in fragmentary bits and pieces, many records of his writings were found among writers who came after his period such as Plutarch, Monk Georgius Syncellus, Julius Africanus and many others too numerous to mention had records of Manetho's legendary works. Ptolemy II Philadelphus had acquainted himself with the vast knowledge of Manetho's works, of which was regarded as the main libraric source of knowledge on all things Tamaryan, from which writers from Rome to Athens were later to derive information from.

Manetho (meaning "Beloved or Devoted of Thoth") compiled into their rightful order the ruling periods of the pharaohs and queens of Tamaryan Dynasties, and divided them into 31 Dynasties preceeding that of Ptolemy II Philadelphus' ruling period, of which Egyptologists grouped into four periods of Old, Middle, New, and the Late kingdoms.

Chronology of the Dynasties

Pharoahs & Queens of Tamary (Ancient Egypt and Nubia)

Archaic Period (ca. 3150-2686 B.C.)
Predynastic - Dynasty O (ca. 3150-3050 B.C.)